Johns Hopkins University Admissions Officer: I Hope That Chinese Applicants Could Form Their Own Opinions and Make Their Voices Heard

By Yilin Wang
This interview was conducted in 2015.
It was subsequently published by the Blue Net China magazine, Vol.1.

At the end of 2015, Blue Net China, the student media group I co-founded with my friends, got into contact with the undergraduate admissions office at the Johns Hopkins University. We collected questions and concerns from applicants in China, delivered them to the admissions officers, and sent their feedback to China. Below is a summary of the dialogue between me and Jesse Tomczak, the admissions officer in charge of admissions work related to the East Asian region.

How has the quantity of Chinese candidates, as well as the quality of their applications, changed within the past few years?

A:   As more and more Chinese students get interested in applying to the universities in the U.S., our number of Chinese applicants has increased by 70% in the past three years. One of the most prominent changes that we noticed is the rising popularity of Hopkins among the medium and small-sized Chinese cities, thanks to the good word of mouth. Our admission office is looking forward to further enhance Hopkins’ reputation in these medium cities. We have recently visited seven Chinese cities, including Kunming, Xi’an and etc., with several other schools such as Stanford and Dartmouth. We are happy to welcome students with different cultural backgrounds, and to further diversify our student body. However, while diversity is an important factor, it is surely not the sole factor.

Have you noticed any common characteristics of Chinese applicants?

A:   They tend to put great emphasis on their test scores, and indeed, most of them have strong academic record. We found out lately that Chinese candidates are prone to get exam help from test preparation classes, even during their senior year of high school.

More and more Chinese high schools start to offer IB and AP courses to students who plan to study abroad. How do you evaluate these international course centers?

A:   We do not differentiate these international course centers from traditional Chinese high school classes, and thus have no preference for one over another. Moreover, we have never set down a quota of admissions upon either educational system. What we truly care, which has nothing to do with the course structure, is whether the applicants are able to step out of their comfort zone and to do well in relatively challenging courses. Taking no chances, we are willing to spend more time getting to know these international courses centers better through constant school visits. Whichever course system the students are enrolled in, we hope that they would “approach in the right way.”

I observed that most of the Chinese students at Hopkins have had some sort of cultural exchange experiences. Some have been studying in the U.S. or Canada since high school, while some enjoyed study abroad opportunities in other countries. In selecting the applicants, how would you value these students with extended cultural exchange backgrounds?

A:   I think these students, for example the ones who are from American high schools, would have advantage in knowing more about the application process. However, that does guarantee a higher chance of admission. Our principal is to evaluate whether a student stands out as a good fit for Hopkins.

How would you choose between the students who have similar portfolios, but are from different educational systems of the same school (i.e. IB versus Gaokao)? Or perhaps, from different cultural backgrounds?

A: We always compare students from the same educational system. However, when we have to make a choice between students from different educational systems, or geographical and cultural backgrounds, we will do our best to find a balance. For example, if this student is to be placed in a totally different system or background, will he or she manage to attain the same achievements as shown in the portfolio now? Nevertheless, we have not faced many cases like this up till now, because each application that we received has been unique and characteristic.

Around the end of year 2014, the College Broad delayed SAT scores of Chinese test takers, and concerns over SAT test continue to beleaguer Chinese applicants. How do you approach these problems?

A:   We will ensure that such insitances do not affect the chance of admission for the students. However, if such problems continue to happen, we would have to doubt the test results of these students.

Although every student is unique and has his or her own story, we are still curious if there is anything in common among the students of Hopkins?

A:   With strong emphasis on liberal arts, Hopkins embraces academic freedom and grants our students an open curriculum (with no fixed core curriculum). Our students are all very focused, dedicated, and passionate in what they study. But once again, every Hopkins student has his or her own character.

Would you please give some suggestions or comments to our potential or current Chinese applicants?

A:   Firstly, I hope that they all form their own opinion and can make their voice heard, instead of following what their parents or consultant say. The college application process is not designed for, and thus should not be dominated by, these “adults.” We expect the high school students to be responsible of themselves and to finish the whole process individually. Secondly, I hope that they can devote more time and energy to research and to get to know the universities that they are applying to. I understand that it would not be easy for foreign students; however, it is crucial. Simple numbers like ranking can never provide a holistic view of a school. Last but not least, I’d love to ask all applicants to enjoy this process, to free themselves from all exterior pressure, and to truly follow their own hearts.

约翰霍普金斯大学招生官:我希望中国学生能够掌握自己的声音

作者:王艺霖
采访于2015年
本文原发表于BlueNetChina微信公众号及其纸刊杂志第一期

2015年底,我和朋友联合创建的Blue Net China学生媒体社团与约翰霍普金斯本科招生办公室取得了联系。我们从中国国内的申请者那里了解到他们在申请大学过程中遇到的困难与问题,向招生官转达以后得到了他们的反馈。这篇文章是我与专门负责东亚地区的招生官Jesse Tomczak的访谈录。

近些年来,中国学生申请的数量和质量有一些什么样的改变呢?

在过去的三年中,我们收到的来自中国学生的申请数量增长了将近70%。越来越多的中国学生现在对美国大学有了兴趣。最让我们注意的一个变化是,Hopkins在中国较小的城市的存在感大大提升了,我想这是Hopkins好名声口口相传的作用。目前我们招生办非常期待我们的名气在中国中等城市的拓展。我们前一阵子就与Stanford, Dartmouth等几所学校在中国的六七所城市(包括昆明、西安等)进行了访问。我们希望我们的学生更多样化,有更多特别的文化背景。当然,多样化虽是我们考虑的一个因素,绝对不会是唯一的因素。

中国申请者们有没有什么共同的特点?

他们都很注重他们的考试分数,当然了他们也都有非常高的分数。近年来我们也发现中国申请者们的一个趋势:他们会参加越来越多的考试培训班,甚至在他们的高中最后一年也如此。

现在的中国高中里涌现了越来越多的国际课程中心,专门为想要申请国外大学的学生们提供类似于AP, IB这样的课程。请问你对这样的中心怎么看?

我们对于国际课程中心和传统的“高考班”没有偏好,并不会因为一个学生来自这样的国际课程中心而对他有好感。我们也并不会给来自这样的中心和来自传统“高考班”的录取学生各自设限额。我们更加关注的是,不论在什么课程体系,这个申请者有没有在挑战自我,选择困难的课程并且做好。我们的原则是不去冒风险,所以我们会通过不断的实地访问,花时间来了解这样的国际课程中心。无论是怎样的课程体系,我们希望的是他们approach in the right way。

来到Hopkins后我发现这里大部分的中国学生都有一定的文化交流背景。他们抑或是早在初中或高中就去了美国或加拿大读书,抑或是有在其他国家交流的经验。在你们选择学生的时候对有更丰富的文化交流背景的学生有什么不一样的看法吗?

我想那些有文化交流经验的孩子,比如说在美国读了高中的学生,可能会对大学申请的程序更为理解,这会给他们带来优势。但我们在选择学生的时候并不会因此而偏向他们。我们只会去判断哪个学生会更加适合我们大学。

那么对于同一个学校不同的体系,或是条件相似但文化背景、生活环境大不一样的学生,你们会怎样去选择呢?

我们比较的会是处于同一个体系里的学生。当必须面对不同体系里的学生的选择,或是条件相似地区不同甚至是国家不同的学生,我们会努力寻找平衡。当对比这样环境不同但档案相似的学生,我们考虑的方法的可能会是,如果某一个学生处于另一个体系或地区,他还能不能有这么优秀的档案。当然我们面对这样的选择的情况并没有那么多,因为每一个学生都是很不一样的,都有自己的特点。

在2014年底的时候,SAT考试出现了频频延迟中国籍考生出分时间的情况。一直到最近SAT考试的风波也是源源不断。对这样的问题你们怎么看呢?

我们会保证的是不让这样的状况影响一个学生被录取的概率。但是这样的事件如果一直发生,我们确实会不得不对这些学生的考试分数有怀疑的态度。

Hopkins的学生有没有什么共同的特质呢?

我们的学生都很专注并充满动力和激情,热爱学术。但每一个Hopkins的学生又非常不一样,有着截然不同的背景。Hopkins是一个自由的地方,非常注重人文教育(liberal arts),所以我们的课程设置是开放式的。

你对今后或正在申请Hopkins的中国学生有什么样的意见或建议吗?

首先,我希望他们都能拥有并掌握自己的声音,而不仅仅是听从他们父母或其他咨询师的意见。大学申请不是为那些大人们所设计的,我们期望看到的是一个由高中生们完成的过程。第二,我希望他们能够花更多的时间与精力去真正地理解他们所申请的大学。我知道去了解一所远在异国的学校是一件十分困难的事情,但这真的非常重要。一纸排名或是一些生硬的数据并没有办法真正反映出一个学校的特质。最后也是我最希望看到的是申请者们好好享受他们的大学申请,放下那些来自外界的包袱与压力,静下心来用心、自主地完成这一个过程。

Forbes 30 Under 30 Honoree Yuhao “Tony” He: An Entrepreneurial Spirit

By Yilin Wang
This interview was conducted in 2015.

Tony He graduated from Johns Hopkins Applied Maths Department and Economics Department in 2014. His freshman year was a year of endless video games and after he bought a car in sophomore year, that year became a year full of later-night food time. But in fact he was thinking about doing a startup while playing video games, and even with those frequent later-night food time he managed to find an internship at JP Morgan during his sophomore summer. As he became an upperclassman, the powerful academic spirit of Hopkins finally began to sink in and he started to frequent the school’s library. In his junior year, Tony got an internship opportunity at Morgan Stanley and he worked there in his junior year summer, receiving a return offer at the end of the internship. He is the kind of person who values the quality of his life, but deep inside he is always ruminating and coming up with different novel ideas. 

Tony has left Morgan Stanley to follow his startup dream. He co-founded Amber AI, a fintech company with impressive achievements. In 2019, Tony was honored as a “Forbes 30 Under 30” successful entrepreneur.

“I thought about dropping out of school to do startup.”

Q: I saw your LinkedIn profile where you said you built a website chihuo.com in college. Why did you want to do startup at that time?

A: I intended to attain more experiences when I first had the idea of running the website. Investment banks value people with entrepreneurial spirits. The more time you spend on a job, the more you feel integrated into the company. You will realize that the boss is not the sole decision-maker, because the things you do can also promote the development of the company. Therefore, investment banks find it important to look for “entrepreneurs.” Since the industry is ever changing, the companies prefer the ones who are innovative to the “working machines.” Otherwise, they can simply replace their staffs with robots, right? 

I learned about the website “deliver.com” from my friend at New York City, then I came back to Hopkins to find a similar website in the area, “eat24.com”. These are two useful food-delivery websites, and I became instantly engaged with the idea of “getting everything to eat delivered while sitting at home”. I lived in a remote area in Nanjing, and during the summer vacation I was desperately in need of food-delivery services. So I started to build a food-delivery website with a friend. We encountered a great number of problems, and we realized that thinking was so much easier than actually handling things. For personal reasons, we did not make to official opening of the business. Although the O2O (Online to Offline) industry has been developing wildly in recent years, it was still less-known back then. The website “Eleme”, one of the most successful O2Os nowadays has already reached an estimated value of over one billions dollars. 

What a regrettable fact… Had I dropped out of school and continued with the business, I might have attained great success, as well. But since the industry was getting more and more competitive, it was hard to define the result, but it would certainly enrich my experiences.

Q: If you had the chance to start over, would you drop out of school for the business?

A: I was willing to take risks, but my family would not agree with me. I could have taken a gap year for the business. If I had stuck to the idea of starting up my business, how beautiful the memory would be years later! For me, working for a leading company is not as attractive as running my own business. These are totally different experiences. Working for a big investment bank certainly has its bright sides, though. Now, working for an investment bank like this, I am always surrounded by elites and successful figures. Their attitudes and working manners have influenced me a lot. If I had the chance to start my own business again today, my way of thinking would certainly be more comprehensive than before. “Over the counter,” my transaction job now is to compete with other big investment banks. In this cruel world of business, only the strong could survive, and such a competition environment is different from that during school time. You learn to think twice and probe into questions more carefully, and I think all these are valuable assets for my possible future career of startup. 

At the JP Morgan internship in his sophomore summer, he roughly learned about HK investment banks 

Q: You did an internship at JP Morgan during your sophomore summer. How did you feel after this first-hand experience of life as an investment banker?

A: I took part in an internship program at JP Morgan, targeted at sophomores. This program was different from the internship for juniors, since the purpose of the sophomore program was to enhance the interns’ general understanding of the industry. Every day there were staff members from the IBD department to explain their daily jobs to us, and our jobs were to shadow and observe. To be honest, I didn’t learn much knowledge from this internship, but I got to know the investment banks in Hong Kong better as a really cool job and realized the differences between these investment bankers and Chinese brokers. The industry appeared fascinating to me. Although I realized that the real life as an investment banker was completely different only after I actually graduated from college and went to work, back then I felt the job as an investment banker at HK was what I want. 

So, I applied to Morgan Stanley during my junior year. I initially applied to both the IBD and the Sales and Trading Departments, but the latter one accepted me first. I thought the job at Sales and Trading was more related to economics, so I was more confident to apply what I had learned in college at my job. That was why I chose to do Sales and Trading. The internship was not easy. The trader was not always in a good mood since their work was very stressful, and not all the staff members were approachable as they were all very occupied with their jobs already. The interns were assigned to different groups or projects, and had the opportunity to nurture professional communication skills by observing the actual trading and transactions processes. 

Q: What did you do at your junior internship?

A: There were two groups: IBD and Trading. I was given all kinds of tasks. For example, I was once asked to find import and export information of a country. They would assign jobs to us as soon as they had a new idea. I must take all these tasks seriously, because these were all useful information for the decision-makers. My primary jobs were to collect and categorize data. I had developed relevant skills when taking classes at Hopkins. I also rotated between the two groups, and was given many writing assignments. One of my biggest projects was to analyze the real estate situation in Mainland China. These tasks were very detailed, as opposed to other standardized types of job. Whether you can handle it or not depended on the skills you nurtured in your college. Although Hopkins is not finance-oriented, it certainly provides a good environment for its students to acquire these skill sets. The more assignments you do, the more areas you learn about, and the more you are used to deal with multi-task situations. Moreover, the Trading Department values the communication between people. They love gregarious people who also work hard and carefully. I got the return offer at the end of the internship. 

Current Work at Morgan Stanley

Q: It has become a common knowledge that people in finance are insanely busy. What do you think?

A: It depends on your task.  It is pretty intense and exhausting doing sales and trading. You have to stay by your table all the time during work, and you would live on take-out food. You would even need to ask your colleague to cover for you for a while when you have to use the restroom, just in case the clients demand for a price. Whenever something major happens, you are supposed to stand by, make transactions or take appropriate actions in time, in order to avoid unnecessary loss for your company. I am in charge of the foreign exchange market, and the market operates 24 hours a day. As it is impossible for one person to work all-day, we have three shifts according to three time zones, namely Asia, London and New York. Each time-zone shift lasts for nearly 12 hours, from 7am to 6:30 pm, and there is usually no work during weekends.

Follow up: Do you feel exhausted from such heavy workloads? Or do you enjoy it?

A: In college, the school always started at noon for me, so I had to adjust myself when I first took the job. But I am quite used to the routine now. I have to do lots of data reading and to brainstorm for trading ideas. The task is not physically demanding, but it certainly requires tons of thinking. The longer you work, the more you obtain, and thus the easier the work becomes. I would not say that my work is easy, but I am adapted to the job now.

Q: What do you usually do off work?

A: I usually work out with my friends after work, and I video chat with my girlfriend every day. I was very into playing video games when I was a student, but I have less time to do so ever since having a job. However, I still watch movies and video clips that interest me from time to time.

Q: When did you decide to work in the finance industry?

A: I really wanted to make money when I was young, so my family suggested that I should 

enter the finance industry, since it is most related to money. However, there are different kinds of finance jobs, such as sales, trading, IBD, asset management, and some other technical work. In fact, I did not decide which direction to take until I entered college and took several internships. But as I had developed this basic idea of pursuing finance-related jobs early in high school, I already started taking internships for the brokers, and getting to know the periphery areas of the finance industry back then.

Q: Do you have plans for the future? Are you planning on staying in the finance industry?

A: It is hard to say how my future will be like, since the industry is changing so rapidly. For example, my company reduced staff by 25% only last week, and a lot of my colleagues around me have left. The finance industry changes every second, and the mobility of staffs is extremely high. The ones who have stayed in one company for 3-4 years are counted as “the old members.” There are plenty of possibilities everyday. Meanwhile, the managers would love to reduce the mobility of young staff members in the company. As the training of young staff members could be time consuming, the management layer tends to keep the excellent trainees in the company. In this industry, your bosses basically define your experiences since they play a major role in your career. Fortunately, my supervisor excels in his field and is very approachable. I have learned quite a lot from him, and I might have a totally different experience under the supervision of another manager. 

I do not have a specific plan for the future right now. I always have the idea of starting my own business, but in a different way from the time when I was in college. If I were to do a startup, I would approach to people similar to me, and see if they think the same way I do, and then I would start the actual work. In my company there are lots of brilliant young people and I would discuss about different entrepreneurial ideas with them: Which idea is unique and worth putting actual work in it? Which idea has already been carried out by a lot of people? I would wait until everything is prepared to begin. 

Hopkins and Finance

Q: Has Hopkins provided you with necessary resources related to the finance industry?

ATo be honest, not enough, but when I look back, I think that Hopkins has prepared me for Finance in another way. In such an academic-driven school, for each year class there are only around 50 people who desire to pursue careers in Finance. However, when you choose a concentration and take more specializing upper-level classes during your junior or senior year, you will start to realize that you are always in two or three classes with the same group of students interested in doing finance, accounting, or actuary. You will see that it is this group of people that want to pursue careers in these industries. The group I was familiar with in my year class had almost all found a satisfactory job in the finance industry.

Hopkins has a good reputation for its engineering education, and most students are very self-motivated and concentrated. Had I chosen a party school other than Hopkins, I would possibly be less motivated and more hedonistic. Luckily, the excellent study environment at Hopkins influenced me a lot in a positive way. Although Hopkins does not offer many courses in Economics and those courses are not designed to prepare students for the relevant job market, they actually equipped me with a firm knowledge background for the comprehension of the finance industry. 

Q: Did you take part in the fraternities at Hopkins, especially those with a business or finance focus?

A: I went to several fraternity parties when I was a freshman, but I didn’t join the club. It was still relatively rare for Chinese students to join fraternities at that time. I would not recommend the fraternities focused on social events, but the engineering and business fraternities might be useful in terms of their professional and academic events. Although a lot of students with their eyes on careers in business or finance would join the fraternities focused on business or finance, I refused, as I always had done, to do the same thing as other people. This might seem a bit rebellious, but I tend to think in my own way, and I think this way of thinking is reasonable in a way. If everyone has the same item on their resumes, then why should the company chooses you over others?

[Note: the engineering-focused fraternity is The Ta Tau, and the business and finance-focused fraternity is Alpha Kappa Psi. Both are popular fraternities at Hopkins.]

Q: Since you didn’t join any fraternity in college, did you take part in any extracurricular activity that prepared you for your professional career later?

A: I attended the “financial market group,” a market-oriented group whose founder was a trader at Goldman Sachs. The community was small, with only about ten members with focus and strong interests in the financial market. We always discussed major issues and current events like the exchange rates of foreign currency, price of gold, and the stork market. Such group was rare among Hopkins students. Most members in the group had their eyes on IBD, though. Personally I think IBD does not offer me enough space to fully apply my knowledge, since most of the tasks are assigned by the manager. However, I can decide what to trade on my own right now at my job instead of taking orders from others. 

I also joined a group focused on startups, and a part of the members had already started their own businesses. The members gave presentations every week. I preferred the small activity groups to the bigger ones. I joined a great amount of groups in my freshman year, but later I gave some of them up and only stuck to those I was really into. I spent a lot of time having fun in college, but even now I found that the correct thing to do since I barely got time to have fun now.

Follow-up: So what exactly did you do for fun in college?

A: We only had less than ten Chinese students in our year class, so I had to spend a lot of time with students from other countries. Many schoolmates of mine desired to pursue academic paths then, but I wasn’t fond of that. I wasn’t a person who could sit at one place and do research for all day.

I liked to play video games, so my roommates and I would play the game “League of Legends” (LOL) together a lot. We would go to the library to play LOL since the Wi-Fi there was better. Unfortunately, playing video games in library is no longer allowed now. It was actually fun to have 6 people playing games in the study room.  

I remember buying a car when I was a sophomore, and life became much easier. We would even go to the Korean restaurants at midnight.

I really miss my days in college, when I could simply have fun. There was a leader in our company who also graduated from Hopkins. I met him during a meeting in Hong Kong and we had a great talk. Most alumni love Hopkins and miss their time at this school.

Q: Could you name some interesting courses or courses that can be helpful to careers?

A: Financial Accounting and Corporate Finance are both among those many basic level courses that laid solid foundation for finance-related knowledge. The most interesting class I had taken was Oral Presentation, where I met Professor Pam Sheff who was extremely helpful. I was not good at public speaking at that time, but the professor taught me a lot of speech giving skills. I also remember taking a relatively practical class, taught by Professor James Knapp. The professor divided students into four groups and made every group a company. We had to come up with our own business decisions every day, to hold weekly meeting, and to set prices for our products. A computer simulation gave us the expected results when we input our data. In this class we had to consider our company’s situation, while monitoring other companies’ performances.

Q: Anything to say to current Hopkins students?

A: Do take advantage of your college time. Experiment with what you want to explore. Travel to as many places as you can when you have time. I believe you all will be fine with your academic performances and your internships. Spend more time meeting different people. You will always miss this good old time. 

福布斯30位30岁以下精英入围者何宇豪(Tony He): 大学时的创业梦想

作者:王艺霖
采访于2015年
本文原发表于BlueNetChina微信公众号

Tony He, 2014年毕业于Johns Hopkins应用数学系和经济系。大一的时候宅在图书馆打游戏,大二的时候买了车没事夜里跑出去吃好吃的,但打游戏的大一还是在想着创业,吃吃吃的大二还是找到了JP Morgan的实习。大三大四受到了Hopkins强大学术氛围的影响开始泡图书馆,大三暑假在Morgan Stanley实习并拿到了return offer,毕业后就到了Morgan Stanley做sales and trading(销售和交易)。

目前,Tony已离开Morgan Stanley创建了自己的公司Amber AI。凭借着公司优秀的成绩,Tony入围了2019年福布斯30岁以下精英榜。

“上大学后想过创业,也想过为此辍学

Q: 之前我在网上有看到你说自己创建过一个chihuo.com的网站?当初为什么想创业?

A: 当初做网站,是想丰富自己的经历。投行很喜欢有创业家精神的人。当你在一个工作呆久了,你会发现你也是公司的主人,工作中很多事情并不全是老板说了算,你的努力也会推动公司的发展。所以对于投行来说,招一个有创新精神的人是很重要的。因为这一行在不断地变化,所以老板会希望每一个人都有自主思维,不能是定化思维,不然员工不就可以用机器代替了吗?

刚上大学,我在纽约的同学告诉我他们那边有一个网站叫做deliver.com。我查了一下Hopkins这边类似的网站,有一个叫做eat24.com的,这两个网站都不错,用来订外卖的。 我当时觉得这个网上订外卖的主意很酷,很牛逼,在家里就可以有饭吃。我暑假回中国,因为家在南京很偏远的地方,我觉得自己急需一个能订外卖的网站,所以当时就开始找朋友一起做。我们遇到了各种各样的问题,发现操作比空想要困难很多。后来我们做到快要开始营业了,但是由于一些个人的原因,我们没有做成。虽然这几年O2O (线上到线下)的公司数量爆炸性地增长,但在当年还是很稀缺的。现在国内“饿了么”是这几年O2O最成功的一个网站,估值好像有十几亿美金。

想起当初还是有一点点可惜,我觉得或许辍学创业说不定能做出一点成就,但我们很遗憾没有做出成型的网站和其他网站竞争。不过因为同行业竞争很激烈,所以也很难说坚持做下去最后的成败会如何,但是我想总归经历会丰富一些。

Q: 如果可以重来一次,你愿意辍学吗?

A: 我自己属于比较愿意冒险的人,但是家人坚决不同意嘛。现在回想起来,我觉得完全可以辍学一年。如果自己当时坚持创业了,若干年后回想起来,总是一个美好的回忆啊。对我而言,就算在在很大很好的公司工作也比不上有一家自己的公司那么有成就感,两种感觉是完全不一样的。但在大投行工作当然也有它的好处。我觉得现在我身边有很多很优秀的人,我也可以见到全世界各种各样很牛逼的人,看看他们的工作态度,我自己也会受到熏陶和影响。如果今天从投行出来去创业,我觉得自己思考问题的角度也会和几年前有很大的区别,会更全面。我现在交易的工作叫作over the counter,很多时候是要去和其他的大投行来竞争的。这是一个很残酷的世界,就像一个丛林一样,不是你死就是我活。在学生时代是体会不到这样的竞争的,我学会更仔细、更深入地看很多问题。所以我觉得这样的经历对未来创业很有帮助。

大二暑假的时候在JP Morgan做实习,大致了解了香港投行

Q: 大二暑假你在JP Morgan实习,感受到了投行的真实生活后有什么感觉?

A: 当时我参加的是JP Morgan针对大二的项目,和针对大三的实习很不一样。大二的以了解为主,每天有IBD(投资银行部)部门里面的人给我们讲自己在做什么,我们也可以看到他们每天上班的样子。我觉得倒是没有学到什么知识,就是让自己知道了香港的投行是很酷很华丽的工作,也深刻地意识到这和国内的券商完全不一样。虽然真正工作后我发现又是另一番样子,但是当时就是很想到这样的地方工作。

因为如此,我大三就去了Morgan Stanley,IBD和sales and trading我都申请了,后者很早就录取了我,而且我觉得这个工作更接近经济一点我能够学以致用,所以就做了这个。实习的时候感觉很残酷,交易员的脾气很不好,因为工作压力特别大,很多人都觉得教实习生浪费时间。实习生会被分到不同的组或项目里面去做事,就有机会观察真实交易的过程以培养专业的交流技能。

Q: 大三实习的时候你们都会干些什么呢?

A: 我们有一个IBD的组,一个sales and trading的组。他们会给我任务,比如说,你帮我找找这个国家的进出口信息。他们有一个想法就会扔给我,我自己就要花心思去做,因为这些信息对他们都十分重要。我的主要工作是数据采集和信息整理,不过在Hopkins上课的时候类似的技能我都接触过。我在不同的组轮换着做,码字的工作比较多。我最大的一个项目是写中国房地产的情况。任务不是很标准化,很多都很细小。能不能做好它们,很多时候取决于大学时候学到的一些技能。虽然Hopkins不是一个金融偏向的学校,但是对我从事金融方面的工作是有帮助的。因为学校作业很多,让学生接触的领域很多,所以当你习惯性地做各种各样的任务的时候,你都可以做得不错。还有就是交易比较看中人与人的交往,这个部门喜欢能跟大家合得来的、工作刻苦细致的人。我在实习结束的时候就拿到了return offer。

Q: 听说做金融的人都非常忙非常累,你觉得呢?

A: 这取决于你干什么工作吧。做sales and trading的工作是很累的。上班的时候需要一直待在桌子旁边,吃饭需要从外面买回来吃。即使上厕所的时候都需要同事来帮忙cover,因为万一有客户来问价格,或者有其他重大的事情发生,我们都希望有人坐在那里,可以反应过来,操作交易,为公司及时规避风险。我是做外汇市场的,24小时都在交易,但是一个人不可能工作24小时,所以我们分三个时间段来换班,亚洲、伦敦、和纽约。我的工作时间是12个小时,从早上七点到晚上六点半,等伦敦的人进来就可以走了。周末一般不需要工作。

追问:做这么累的工作你乐在其中吗?

A: 因为我上学的时候课一般是从中午开始的,所以一开始会有不适应的阶段,但是后来就适应了。我每天的工作是读很多资料,想很多交易的点子,身体上并不累但是脑子比较累。时间久了有了知识的积累,工作就越来越轻松。现在我虽然没觉得轻松,但是很适应。

Q: 你下班后都做些什么来放松?

A: 下班后我会和朋友一起健身,每天和女朋友聊天、视频。从学生时代开始,就喜欢玩点游戏,工作后变少,但是还是会看看有趣的视频或者电影。

Q: 你从什么时候就开始想做金融了?

A: 小时候想赚钱,家人就建议我做金融,因为金融是离钱最近的专业。但是金融行业的工作也分很多种,比如说销售、交易、 IBD、 资产评估,和一些其他的技术性工作。我上大学和实习后才慢慢摸索自己具体想做哪个方向。但是金融的大方向我是从高中就知道了,所以我高中就开始在国内的一些券商那里实习,了解金融行业的外围工作。

Q: 现在对未来有什么规划?想要一直在金融业里呆下去吗?

A: 我觉得很难说自己的未来如何吧,因为这个行业每天都在变化。比如说,我们公司上周就裁了大约25%的人,我后面和我旁边的人都走了。这一行的变化很快,流动性特别大,在一个公司三四年都算是老员工。但是老板也不希望公司的年轻人流动太大,刚刚把你培养起来,希望你能在公司发挥一些作用,也不希望你这么快就走。在金融行业,老板很重要,这也要看运气。不同的老板有完全不同的体验。我很幸运,我的老板在交易的水平和技术上都是首屈一指的,对人也很好。我能在他手下干活觉得自己很幸运,今年我们的业绩很好,我也希望多向老板学习学习。我不想很快离开,不过也都要看机遇了。

以后的打算也很难说吧,我觉得有很多可能性。我自己很喜欢创业,因为我总有很多新的点子。不过我工作后想法有变化,创业的话我想先接触类似的人,了解是不是和自己想得一样,再开始做。在公司里有很多聪明的年轻人,我会和同事商量,大家一起讨论哪个点子比较好啊,哪个已经很多人做了啊,等一切都规划好了再开始。

关于Hopkins和金融的一切

Q: Hopkins对金融的发展有帮助吗?

A: 凭良心讲,并不是很大。但是回过头来看,Hopkins的金融还是不错的。虽然Hopkins是以学术为核心的学校,我那时候平均每届只有五十人左右想做金融,但你会发现,到大三大四的时候开始细分专业课,每个学期都有那么两三节课是和同一些人一起上的,大部分都想做金融、会计和精算。你会慢慢发现要做这几个行业的就是这一帮人。我们这一届的这一帮人基本上都找到了金融方面不错的工作。

Hopkins是一个偏向工程的学校,而且绝大多数人的学习态度都很好。我属于那种不是特别爱学习的人,但我大三大四基本上都在图书馆里面泡着。如果我去一个别的学校,就是比较party school的学校,我一定天天都跟他们在一起玩儿。但是因为Hopkins是一个大家都爱学习的学校,所以我也受到了一定的影响。虽然这个学校经济方面的课不是特别的强,没有那么以找工作为目的,但是就基础知识而言还是很扎实的,经济课程还是很多样的,对理解金融的基本概念起到非常大的作用。

Q: 在Hopkins有没有参加兄弟会,尤其是商业或金融方面的?

A: 大一时候有参加他们的party, 但是没有正式加入。我们那个时候中国人很少加入他们的组织。兄弟会一般是在一起玩儿啊之类的,个人觉得没什么必要参加纯粹以社交为目的兄弟会。但是有个以工程为核心的兄弟会,也有个以商业和金融为核心的兄弟会还是不错的。虽然有很多想做金融的都会参加以商业和金融为核心的兄弟会,但是我这个人的个性是,有很多人做的事情我都不想去做。虽然有点叛逆,但是我总是喜欢用自己的方式去思考问题。换个角度思考,其实也是对的。如果大家的简历都是一样的,那你也没有什么特别的地方了,公司为什么要你呢?

[注:这里提到的以工程为核心的兄弟会是The Ta Tau,以商业和金融为核心的兄弟会是Alpha Kappa Psi,这两个都是Hopkins非常受欢迎的兄弟会。]

Q: 你没有参加兄弟会,那你在学校做了什么行业相关的课外活动吗?

A: 我参加了一个专门做市场方面的组织,叫financial market group,它当时的组织人在高盛做交易。这个社团是关注金融市场的,人并不多,十个人左右,大家都对金融市场很感兴趣。我们会讨论外汇、黄金、股票什么的为什么会波动,最近行业里出了一些什么样的问题,世界上有什么大事发生。这样的社团在我们学校很少见。不过那里面大部分人是想做IBD的。我个人认为IBD给自我的空间太少,大多时候都需要做老板要求的工作,但是我现在做的交易的工作老板很难告诉我应该怎么做。我买什么卖什么都是我自己做决定,而不是别人告诉我怎么做。

我还加入了一个专门做创业的社团。里面的很多人都很厉害,有很多人都有自己的创业公司,他们会给我很多好的思路,每周都有人做演讲展示。我加入的社团都是人比较少的社团。大一加入很多,但是之后就只去自己喜欢的了。我觉得我在大学玩得比较多,现在想起来觉得自己这么做还是对的,很开心,因为工作的时候没有时间玩了。

追问:你说你玩得比较多,那你在大学都玩了些什么?

A: 我们一届只有不到十个中国人,所以很多时候都和外国人在一起。我们当时有很多同学是想走学术道路的, 我不太喜欢天天搞学术研究,也不太能坐得住。

我比较喜欢打游戏,当时就和室友一起打英雄联盟。大一的时候我们一个宿舍的人都去图书馆打游戏,因为网比较好。很可惜现在图书馆已经不允许玩游戏了。当时有时候我们六个人在一个自习室里打游戏,真是很激情的岁月。我记得我大二买了车,生活发生了很多的变化。我和我室友经常夜里跑去吃东西,尤其是买车以后,有时候夜里一两点去韩国餐厅吃东西。

现在想起“可以玩儿”的时光真的是特别怀念。我们公司一个比较大的领导有天正好来香港,他也是Hopkins毕业的,听说我也是Hopkins毕业的的还特意来和我打招呼。我们聊了很久,讲Hopkins的回忆。我觉得绝大多数人对是非常热爱这所学校的,毕业后都会很怀念当时的时光。

Q: 在Hopkins有没有上过什么很有意思的课或者对工作有帮助的课?

A: 金融方面,学校的金融基础课例如Financial Accounting和Corporate Finance都是练基本功很不错的课。我有上过有意思的课一个是Oral Presentation,我当时跟了一个很好的老师Pam Sheff,对我影响很大。我当时公众演讲这方面很差,他教了我们很多演讲上的技巧。 我还有上一节偏实战的课,是James Knapp教的,老师把班里同学分为四组,每一组是一个公司。每天要有自己的决策,每周要开会,要对自己的产品定价。有一个计算机模拟的程序,我们要把自己的数据放进去,然后会有一个大概的应收结果。这节课里我们不仅要从自己公司的角度看问题,还要从其他公司的角度看问题。

Q: 对现在Hopkins的学弟学妹们有没有什么想说的?

A: 一定要利用好大学的时间,做自己想做的事情,有空到世界各个角落去看看,因为以后机会就越来越少了。找工作也好,学习也好,相信大家都不会特别差。一定要多花些时间出去玩玩,多接触不同的人。以后工作了总会很怀念自己曾经自由轻松的时光。

Conversation with Jamie Tsui, A Photographer in Silicon Valley Who Also Works as a Web Project Manager

By Yilin Wang
This interview was conducted in 2016.

Jamie Tsui graduated from the Johns Hopkins Applied Math and Statistics department in 2008. He was born in Taiwan but raised in Los Angeles before attending Hopkins for his undergraduate degree. During his time at Hopkins he explored several areas and shifted from Computer Engineering to Mechanical Engineering to ultimately Applied Math. After graduating from Hopkins, he began his full-time career at Stanford University, and in 2012 launched his own professional photography company.

He found love twice in college, and followed them to the Silicon Valley: It is a common knowledge that Hopkins is well-known for its academic-driven atmosphere. You could say it is either an engineering-focused school or a humanity-oriented one, but photography and arts wouldn’t first come to mind. But how did Jamie find his passions for photography at Hopkins?

Q: How did you fall in love with photography in the first place?

A: I met my wife in freshmen year at Hopkins. She loved to travel, and I developed an interest in photographing our travels. At first I did lots of nature and landscape photography. In junior year, I wanted to get somewhat more serious about learning and purchased my first DSLR camera. It wasn’t until 2011 when I really started taking photography seriously and learning everything I could from it, especially from watching workshop videos on Youtube. It was also around that time that I was invited to my first wedding amongst my friends, where I took photos as a guest. I found taking photos of people to be a unique and rewarding challenge and ultimately developed a passion for it, which is why I launched my professional wedding photography company. 

Q: Why did you decide to turn photography into a profession?

A: I think when you are interested in something and become passionate about it, you just want to keep improving. After my first experience photographing a wedding as a guest, I felt like I found something that I really enjoyed and could keep learning about. In 2012, I took a leap, put together my portfolio and website, and started my small business.  By that Fall I had shot three weddings with my wife assisting me; over time, I started hiring second photographers and assistants. I’m the lead photographer for my company, Eggsposure, and would reach out my team to assist on shoots depending on their availability. Although the photography industry is getting more and more competitive, I’m always thinking about how to keep our niche and brand unique and attractive to customers. While I essentially work two jobs to ensure my financial security while also pursuing a passion, I respect and admire those who can fully commit their passion even with all the practical pressures of life. 

Q: You’ve walked a long way in the field of photography from your time in college to now, and from Baltimore to the Silicon Valley. What do you think has changed in your relationship with photography, or the photography industry itself? Why did you come all the way to the Silicon Valley to pursue your career?

A: After I started charging for my photography work, I also had a higher standard to which I held myself. My photos had become my products which customers paid for, instead of serving as simply a hobby for me. As for the photography industry, while the entry barrier of the industry was lowered, people’s understanding of the industry has become deeper and as a result customers are more demanding. Unlike the past, a “professional” camera has become a lot more affordable, drawing droves of people to the industry. At the same time, I feel that people nowadays are more open to pursuing their passion, as I’ve seen and read about people from all kinds of industries, from med students to investment bankers, drop their career and join the photography industry. 

I came to the Silicon Valley for several reasons, though primarily because I found my first job here, and because my wife chose Stanford for her graduate education. Over time, I’ve grown to really appreciate the environment and culture of the area; Stanford is truly the epicenter of Silicon Valley which has aligned with my life-long interest in technology. Plus, having grown up in California, I felt it was a great and familiar place for pursing photography and my career. 

Photos at Eggsposure, Websites at Stanford: Besides running his own photography company, Jamie works at Stanford as a web project manager. He went straight from Hopkins to Stanford after graduation, and his wife continued her study at Stanford.

Q: Why did you choose working at Stanford back then?

A: It wasn’t necessarily planned for me at the time; it was a result of the options I had in the job climate back then. 2008 was a challenging time for a lot of companies because of the economic crisis, making it extremely to find a job. Originally I had planned to go into the financial industry but even my friends who initially got offers before they graduated had those offers rescinded by Summer and Fall. Over 6 months, I applied to over 100 jobs, but Stanford was the only one to make an offer shortly after the interview. My wife’s plan to study here further confirmed my determination to come here. 

Q: What is a typical working day like for you? 

A: As a web project manager at Stanford, I coordinate and manage the development of large website projects around campus. More specifically, my primary account is with the School of Engineering, though my department does projects with the entire university. During the weekdays I work at Stanford from about 9 AM to 5 PM, then during the evenings I’ll be handling all the overhead for my photography business: editing photos, responding to emails, having client meetings, or even doing photo shoots if there is enough light outside. 

Weekends are usually dedicated to big photo shoots, especially weddings during the wedding season, but also other events such as birthday parties, fundraisers, graduations, proms, and so forth. In Summer 2015, we covered seven weddings in eight weeks, in addition to regular shoots like engagements and family portraits which was a lot of work to manage with also a full time job. 

Q: How would you compare Hopkins and Stanford?

A: Stanford is a place filled with passionate and innovative spirits. It’s a world-class institution, so I feel lucky to be here with so many outstanding people. People are generally very happy to work here because the more casual academic environment, and Stanford tries hard to have a culture that is very work-life balanced. Most groups are very accommodating with flexible schedules; you can leave work early if you need to tend to your family, such as attending a child’s baseball game. Stanford has a very strong sense of community. 

I’ve never attended school at Stanford, so I’m not as familiar with the student life here, though I can try to provide some perspective compared to Hopkins: I would say that the level of competition at these two places is very different. For me, Stanford seems to be more focused on collaboration and has been very supportive as a community, whereas life as a student at Hopkins was much more individualistic. Stanford has a strong and tightly knit alumni network, but I don’t have the impression that Hopkins does as much. I think it’s great that you guys are trying to build that for Hopkins. 

Q: How’s San Francisco treating you? As we all know, the Silicon Valley is a “dream place” for many Chinese engineering students. What’s your impression of the area?

A: The bay area, to me, is very unique, with the atmosphere filled with entrepreneurial freedom and motivation: You would feel behind if you weren’t working on your own startup, at least on the side. People are very open to different ideas and are willing to collaborate. It’s also very oriented around entrepreneurship, especially at Stanford of course. It should not surprise you if your Uber driver tries to pitch you their startup. In fact, Stanford has lots of courses to help prepare its students for starting up a company, and often times professors will end up advising the students’ companies. There are also programs available for people who are not students at Stanford and also not just for tech startups, such as for people who are interested in creating social or non-profit organizations and driving change otherwise.  

Unfortunately, the high cost of living here can be a deterrent for lots of talented people interested in moving here. Nonetheless, I still want to stress the fact, though, that there are tons of opportunities here: Even Stanford has trouble hiring people sometimes, because as a university it can’t match the compensation of industry here. Instead, it makes up for it with intangibles such as its vibrant campus, strong community, and fulfilling mission and work-life. I would strongly advise anyone interested to come and experience the area. Even with the high costs, the opportunities in Silicon Valley are rewarding and worth it. 

报告!在硅谷捉到一只专业摄影的码农!

作者:王艺霖
采访于2015年
本文原发表于BlueNetChina微信公众号

Jamie Tsui,2008年毕业于约翰霍普金斯大学(Hopkins)应用数学系。台湾出生,洛杉矶长大。在Hopkins就读期间涉猎极广,两次改变专业,从计算机工程到机械工程,再到应用数学。不过更重要的是在Hopkins结识了他的妻子,并受其影响开始了摄影的生涯。目前,Jamie在Stanford担任网络项目经理,并经营着一家自己的摄影公司。

在大学找到了两份热爱,追随着它们到了硅谷:众所周知,Hopkins是一个以学术研究著称的大学。你说他工程强也可以,文史强也没错,但老实讲摄影、艺术的确不是Hopkins的菜。那么为什么Jamie反而在这个地方找到了他对摄影的热爱?

Q:  当初是怎么爱上摄影的?

A:  我在大一的时候就认识了我的妻子。她很喜欢旅游,我也很享受在旅游的时候和她一起拍照,就这样我开始喜欢上了摄影。因为旅游比较多吧,所以我是从照景物开始的。在大三的时候,我得到了属于我自己的第一台单反相机,就开始琢磨并尝试去照不同的东西,主要是上Youtube看一些视频教程。后来,我时常被朋友们邀请去参加一些婚礼,帮他们照照片。我渐渐发现自己越来越喜欢摄影,也就照了越来越多的照片。

Q:  你后来怎么想到要把这个当成职业的?

A:  其实就是爱做一件事情久了,就想把它越做越好吧,让这件事情从我生活的一部分,变成我的生活。在2012年,我决定做一个职业的摄影师。我开始建立自己的工作室,设计自己的网页,并上传自己的代表作品集。直到2012年秋天,我在三个婚礼现场进行了拍摄,也有了三个助手。我们的分工是我主要负责摄影工作,由他们协助我完成。我们建立了一个连接摄影师和人们的创业公司Eggsposure,虽然现在摄影行业的竞争也是越来越激烈,我努力工作去维持我们的工作室。我很欣赏那些即使有很多外在环境压力或是生活压力也始终坚持自己所爱的人们,我也很希望自己成为这样的人。

Q:  从大学到现在,从Baltimore到硅谷,这些年你觉得你与摄影的关系,或者摄影这个行业有什么样的变化?你为什么来到了硅谷做这件事情?

A:  当我决定做专业摄影师后,对自己所拍照片的期待就有所提高。对于我而言,照片成为了我的作品,而不是一种给自己娱乐、欣赏的方式。至于摄影行业,由于行业门槛降低,人们加深了对摄影行业的理解。和以前不一样,现在很多人都买得起一个好的相机,所以有越来越多的人加入这个行业。还有我觉得人们现在要比以前思想更自由,因为我见到很多从医学院辍学或者放弃金融工作去从事摄影工作的朋友们。

当初来到硅谷也是有多方原因吧。一方面,我在这边找到了工作,我的妻子当时也计划在Stanford继续读书。加州这边也是我从小到大非常熟悉的环境,我感到亲切,也乐于在自己感觉惬意舒适的地方继续追求我所热爱的摄影。

在Eggsposure做摄影,在Stanford做网站:除了经营自己的摄影公司,Jamie的本职工作是在Stanford做网络项目经理。08年毕业后他就同后来的妻子一起来到了Stanford直接开始了这份工作,他的妻子选择在Stanford继续读书。

Q:  当初为什么选择到Stanford来做网络项目经理?

A:  我并没有特别的规划安排,它更像是职场大环境为我做的选择。我毕业那年刚好是2008年。由于全球经济危机,那个时候对于很多公司而言都是充满挑战的时期,所以工作也十分难找。我申请了很多工作,拿到了这份工作的面试,很快就拿到了录取。因为我后来的妻子也打算到Stanford,不过她是想来读书,这就更加坚定了我选择这份工作的决心。在Hopkins,有很多跟科技相关的课程,可以学到很多跟科技相关的知识。我觉得这些知识很大程度上地帮我提升了能力。

Q:简单描述一下你的一天?

A:作为Stanford的网络项目经理,我需要对整个校园的网站负责。更具体地说,我直接管理工程学院的网站。所以,这基本上是我从周一到周五的生活。我需要朝九晚五工作,在网络上和我的团队开会、工作。我们要确保我们做的网站可以满足客户们的需求。

我周末的“工作”主要是摄影。因为在周中, 我会安排我的摄影的工作更灵活一些,所以在周末我有非常不同“工作日”。不过在夏天,由于学校放假,平时网页的工作会相对轻松很多,我就会花很多时间在摄影工作上。举个例子,去年夏天我们在七个婚礼现场做了摄影,帮他们照了婚纱照。但是在秋冬天,摄影工作就会相对少一些。

Q:你可以简单比较一下Hopkins 和Stanford吗?

A:Stanford给我的感觉,是这个地方充满了创新精神。它是一个世界级大学,我感到很幸运可以加入这么好的团队。我工作的团队人数并不多,但是每个人工作都很努力。我觉得Stanford是一个很有趣的学校,所以它吸引了很多优秀的人才。因为这里的环境并没有很紧张,所以在这里工作的人们都很开心。即使是在创业时期,我们也没有感到压力特别大,因为大家都像家人一样。你有时可以早点收工,花更多时间和家人在一起。Stanford就像一个大集体。但是,这些都是Stanford的工作生活。我并没有在这里上学,所以并不了解这里的学生生活。

而在Hopkins的时候,我是一名学生,压力一定比工作的时候要大很多。我觉得正因为此,让我在两个学校的体验有很大的不同。对于我而言,Stanford是一个更随意的地方。工作时期,大家更像个集体相互支持;而学生时代,很多任务都只能自己完成,所以你的成绩更取决于个人。Stanford校友之间有更紧密的联系,但是Hopkins校友间的联系就相对弱一些,所以我认为你们在做一件非常有意义的事情。

Q:  在San Francisco的生活如何呢?正如我们知道的,硅谷是很多中国工科生梦寐以求的工作地点,你对硅谷有什么印象呢?

A:  对我而言,这是一个十分特别的地方,充满了自由和动力。如果你不努力跟上其他人的脚步,很快就会被落下。人们勇于尝试不同的事情,而且十分愿意与团队合作。硅谷有很浓厚的创业氛围,尤其是Stanford这里。大家时常开玩笑说,这个地方每个人都有一个创业公司。实际上Stanford有很多与创业相关的课程,甚至还有很多教授与学生的创业公司合作。这个地方的每一个环节都是紧紧相连、互相合作的。

但很遗憾的是,由于San Francisco的生活成本较高,许多人都没有能力在这里生活。不过这里真的有成千上万的工作机会。即使是Stanford有时也会遇到找人困难的问题,因为学校并不能支付很高的工资。所以,我强烈建议人们来San Francisco,在这里丰富工作经验。虽然生活成本较高,但我真的觉得这些宝贵的工作机会绝对是值回物价的。

Yale Economics PhD student Yujie Qian: Be Your Own Master

By Yilin Wang
This interview was conducted in 2016.

Yujie Qian graduated from the Johns Hopkins University in 2014, after receiving a Bachelor of Arts degree in Economics, Mathematics, a Bachelor of Science degree in Applied Mathematics & Statistics (AMS), and a Master’s degree in AMS. He transferred from the National University of Singapore to Johns Hopkins in his junior year, and managed to complete the abovementioned degrees in two years. At the time of his graduation, Yujie achieved a cumulative GPA of 3.99/4.0.

You earned a Bachelor’s degree of three majors and a Mathematics Master within four years. How did you manage that? And why did you choose Applied Math and Economics as your majors?

A: Two reasons, I guess. On one hand, when I transferred to Johns Hopkins from National University of Singapore as a junior undergraduate, I had already decided to apply for an economics PhD after graduation. When planning for this PhD application, I thought that a mathematics degree would help my study of economics. And it happens that Johns Hopkins offers an Applied Math major, which allows undergraduate students to take graduate level courses towards a Mater’s degree. So I pursued this Math major, considering that it would help my economics PhD application. On the other hand, I have strong interests in both subjects, math and economics.  There were so many relevant courses at Hopkins that I wanted to take, so I always take as many as I can manage, usually six courses for each semester. As a result, I happened to have filled all the requirements for these majors upon graduation.

Why did you transfer to Hopkins in your junior year?

A: Honestly, the college transfer application was pretty tough; Hopkins was the best among all my offers. I thought that I could easily fit into Hopkins due to its rich academic environment.

You’re now a PhD student. In some sense, you’ve been studying for a long time. What does “learning” mean to you? Is it more of a hobby or a habit? Or is it something that you honestly don’t enjoy?

A: I wouldn’t have applied for PhD if I were not enjoy studying. I really enjoy the process of learning. Undergraduate years in particular, when I haven’t settled down on my specialty, I took so many classes because I was interested in everything, and I wanted to dabble in every subject.

Did you have time for non-major-requirement courses, considering that you completed three majors within such short time? What would be an example of such courses?

A: I used to audit politics and history courses, without really taking them, because such courses can be very time-consuming (if you do all the work required). That’s why I just asked for the lecturer’s permission and audited their classes.

What was your favorite course at Hopkins?

A: The most rewarding one was a PhD level microeconomics course that I audited. The professor is a senior scholar. His class laid more emphasis on ways of thinking than on lecture materials. For example, when he lectured on a theorem, he wouldn’t start by proving it, like most teachers do; instead, he would guide your instincts. That was the most impressive and rewarding course I took at Hopkins.

How did you spend your leisure time at Hopkins? Were you in any extracurricular clubs?

A: I didn’t have much time for extra-curriculum activities at Hopkins due to my course schedules. I do enjoy reading, working out, and watching movies at leisure. During the winter intersession in my junior year, I took a social entrepreneurship course, in which we talked about things like how to establish an NGO. That course was very formative and meaningful.

Since you are fond of reading at leisure, would you like to recommend some books for our readers?

A: Recently, there’s this book called “Super Foresting, the Art and Science Prediction.”  It’s a book about how to make predictions in all every single field, including economics, politics, even sports and weather. The book guides you to apply its prediction model for every subject for which you want to make predictions. The model entails data collection, preliminary predictions, making adjustments, and the construction of the final prediction. In order to make a better prediction, you first need to get rid of your preconceptions, and update your model by your observations. In other words, you’ll need to coordinate different opinions into this model. For example, lots of predictions were made for presidential elections in America, each having its own errors; however, if you put all these models together (it could be as easy as deriving an average result of all the predictions), the incorporated result will be more accurate than almost of all of the individual predictions.

After college , many people chose to work. Why did you choose to pursue a doctor degree?

A:  Two reasons. First, I look forward to the challenges in academics. I chose to pursue a degree in phD purely because I would like to learn and developed myself, not because of some jobs. I am curious and hungry for knowledge. I love to explore new things; I think the processes intriguing. Also I think I am good at and enjoying leaning. If I were asked to do something else, I might not be happy about my life.  

What would you like to do after finishing your PhD?

A: My dream is becoming a professor. However, I might change my plan, since I won’t finish my PhD any time soon. As I learn, my abilities in different fields will improve as well. By the time I graduate, I might want something else. Also it is possible that there will be better job opportunities in the future, so being a professor may not be my best option. My plan for now is  to become a professor. If there are opportunities coming back to Hopkins, I would definitely take the chance.  

Do you have any advice for fellow Hopkins undergrads who wish to pursue a doctor degree?

A: In my opinion, undergraduate is the best time to discover yourselves, to try new things. If you are very sure about PhD, it is important to do research by yourself or with professors. This will help you to accumulate experience and know what to expect in the future. 

Is there anything about Hopkins that you miss particularly? Do you like Yale better?

A: Actually, Yale and Hopkins are alike in some ways. Neither is in busy cities with much distraction around. I would say friends and classmates are what I miss the most about Hopkins. Since I was an undergraduate at Hopkins and a PhD candidate at Yale, I can’t tell which I like better. It’s like comparing an apple to an orange.

If you could go back to freshman year and do it over again, what would you do differently?

A: One thing I didn’t do very well in college is that I didn’t get to know people around me better. There were so many outstanding people around me, all striving towards their goals in different fields. I feel that I didn’t spend enough time on getting to know these amazing people, and on learning to seeing things differently from their perspective.

Is there anything you could not imagine living without?

A: I can’t imagine myself living without challenges and alone time. My work and research consistently involve repeated assignments. As a result, I wish that I am able to do something new and challenging to feel achieved afterwards. I also wish that I can squeeze some time to myself every day, even just a few minutes. I can use these alone time to learn new things, organize and take a break from busy days.  

What was the biggest challenge you encountered at Hopkins?

A: When I helped a professor with data analysis. He was rather strict on students. For instance, we were required to track a nation’s currency supply and black market exchange rate. Since the data fluctuates, he asked us constantly update him with reports and analysis that had to follow the methodology of a rigorous process. I was completely new to such data tracking and analysis. Later, I found out that what he asked us to do was very similar to the work of an financial analyst. I had never imagined to put all these things under a strict time constraint. And the challenge was that it’s like a fresh experience, different from what you learned in class, but will be applicable on a new platform.

How would you like us depict you?

A: An assiduous learner on his way of self-enhancement and potential reaching. 

耶鲁经济学博士钱聿杰:万千纷扰,与我何干,只做自己内心的主人

作者:王艺霖
采访于2016年
本文原发表于BlueNetChina微信公众号

钱聿杰,2014年从约翰霍普金斯大学(Hopkins)毕业。大三由新加坡国立大学来到Hopkins,两年内完成了经济、数学、应用数学三个本科荣誉专业和一个应用数学硕士专业,并以GPA 3.99/4.00 毕业。后前往耶鲁攻读经济学博士。

当初为什么选择了Hopkins?

A:当时觉得这学校以学术氛围闻名,应该挺适合我。同时也是当时限制条件下的最优解,没多想就选了Hopkins。很幸运,这两年在Hopkins充实愉快的生活证明自己做了一个正确的选择。

你在四年之内完成了三个本科专业和一个研究生专业。请你是如何选择这几个专业的呢?

A:这三个专业的知识结构本身就相互渗透,我对数学和经济的兴趣也相辅相成。因为有太多课想学,所以学着学着完成三个专业就成了可能。同时,有了明确的课程要求,选课比较有结构。当然这样做有不小的代价,每学期学校都有不少有趣的政治,历史课,但是毕竟精力有限只能和教授说一声坐在边上旁听,收获当然也不如课上的正式学生了,毕竟对于文科和社会科学的课程,跟读教授要求的文章并且通过写论文来巩固是学习并熟练知识的最佳方式。

在Hopkins遇到过最大的挑战和收获?

A:当时帮一个教授做数据分析。比如他会要我们去关注一些发展中国家的汇率。这些国家的政府机构没有完善的信息收集和披露机制,所以必须依靠黑市的汇率等一些非常规而且时断时续的信息源。更重要的是我们要实时给他更新,每次出现新的数据点都要提交报告、分析,每一步都要遵循非常严格的流程。对于我,这些的挑战主要在于它像一个高强度工作环境的模拟体验,和课堂上的东西不在一个层面,强调时效,模式化,以及项目的可持续性。而这门实践课的教授就是很多人都通过Bloomberg头版头条新闻了解的Hopkins大牛教授,Steve Hanke。

说到收获最大的课,我觉得应该是一门我旁听的博士生的微观经济学。教授讲课不循常规,天马行空。他在讲非常数学的定理和证明的时候也总是强调直觉和思维方式,还喜欢用苏格拉底式的启发教育法不断追问直到向我们揭示出深层次的涵义。在课上我不但能学到一些自学不一定学得到的东西,还第一次目睹了一个出色的经济理论家如何思考。

你在Hopkins除了学习生活,还有没有参加一些课余社团?这些活动对你有怎样的帮助?还有平时喜欢玩些什么?

A:要说社团的话我是“宅家社”的, 因为喜欢的娱乐活动像看书,看电影,健身都不太需要一个社团体系支持。在Hopkins课余最有意思的经历是在大三的寒假短学期上的一个叫做前沿社会变化(Leading Social Change)的研讨课。同学里有我这样的新手也有经验老道的社会工作者,用两周多的时间学习怎样应用商业原则和技巧来创建并且运营一个非政府组织。对我来说是非常有意义的一次尝试。

很多人都在大学毕业以后选择了参加工作,你为什么选择了走上学术这条道路?

A:首先是出于好奇心。在学习过程中见识到了经济学非常美妙的研究成果,自然就希望在读PhD的过程中能不断接触一些前沿的成果并且自己也能为拓展知识做出贡献。同时还能迎来更强的挑战,纯粹从学习和自我发展的角度,也是很好的历练。其次就是觉得我的比较优势就是这个方面。其他一些工作相对侧重的技能我现在还有不足有待提升。

你选择了读博,那么“学习”这件事情是陪伴你很久很久了。对于你来说,“学习”意味着什么?是一个爱好?一个习惯?还是一件其实你并不喜欢的事?

A:如果不是很喜欢的话也不会去选择读博士,走上学术这条道路。我很享受学习的过程。在本科的时候心比较散,什么东西都感兴趣,都想学,所以最后就学了很多课。博士的训练不仅仅是学习,更是帮助学生向专业的知识生产者转变。对我来说这也伴随着心态和习惯的转变。

最近有什么推荐的书?

A:去年出版的 Super Foresting,the Art and Science Prediction 是一本很有趣的书。是讲一个普通人组成的团队如何做出有效的预测,并且战胜学术研究机构甚至市场预期。对于想要用相对普适的理论来解释和预测世事并且屡败屡战的社会科学研究者来说,这本书不仅仅是有趣而已。方法说来很简单,只是把一个群体的预测作加权平均,然后极化以反映对聚合信息的更高信度。例如美国选举,每一个民调机构都有不同的模型,分别有不同的误差,如果把这些东西综合起来,即使只是一个平均, 那这个预测会比其他所有人的预测都要准确。以此为类比,作为个体提高判断和预测能力的方式也有迹可循。

PhD结束之后想做什么?

A:目前的计划是想在学术界取得教职,不过这是一个开放的计划。一方面我想在成长过程当中与人交流的能力会不断提升,可能等到毕业的时候这不会是一个短板了。另一方面,如果到时候会发现更好的施展空间,也可能去业界吧。越来越多的公司现在开始积累他们独有的庞大数据库,我想他们可能会提供非常有趣的研究机会。

有没有什么给想申PhD 的学生的建议?

A:我觉得本科比较重要的是探索自我,利用学校的提供的机会去学一些“无用”的东西以后可能都会成为值得珍惜的财富。已经非常确定要读博的话那除了选课,最重要的是自己要独立地或跟着教授去做一些初步的研究。积累经验,还可以比较清楚的了解到走这个道路到底需要什么样的技能,以后大概会做什么样的工作。在申请的过程中教授是最宝贵的资源。Hopkins的教授通常对有PhD意向的同学非常热情,并且会对选择项目和方向提供非常直率的建议。多和他们聊聊能减少申请过程中的不安定感。

有没有怀念Hopkins的什么呢?更喜欢Yale还是Hopkins?

A:Yale和Hopkins其实有一点像,在不那么繁华的地方,周边没那么多繁杂的东西。怀念的就是朋友和同学吧。从本科和博士看一个学校,需求不同,这就像一个苹果和橘子的对比吧。

如果现在能重新来一遍回到大一,有没什么想做的?

A:大学没有做得太好的点,就是没有去更好地了解身边的同学。他们都是非常优秀的个体,有各自不同的理想朝着不同方向努力。现在回想起来觉得还是没有花足够的时间在社交上,没有了解他们,去用他们的眼光看世界。

你觉得生活中最不可或缺的东西是什么?

A:挑战和自己独处的时间。我希望每天都接受新的信息,挑战看上去有困难、有成就感的事情。希望每天拿出一些时间,读书也好发呆也好,哪怕再忙碌的生活当中至少有一段短短的时间是属于自己的。学一点新的东西,整理一下思绪,稍微从繁忙的生活当中分一下心。

你会希望我们把你描绘成一个什么样的形象呢?

A:一个在自我发掘、自我提升的道路上努力前行的人。

陈敬阳 (Jingyang Chen):在汇丰银行做经济学家是怎样的体验

作者:王艺霖
采访于2018年
本文原发表于BlueNetChina微信公众号

放眼现在的留学圈,“投行”与“咨询”大致是最炙手可热的职业发展道路了。提起投行,大家更为熟知的多是做上市分析、债券研究之类的工作,似乎与“经济学研究”、“公共部门”这样的字眼并无瓜葛。很多同学常会面对自己喜爱学术,但又渴望一个快节奏的工作环境的困境,想着如果能有一个地方既能够做大方向、宏观的研究工作,生活又不会太单调就完美了。今天想与大家分享的是一位刚从Hopkins毕业不久的陈敬阳学姐在投行做经济学家的经历,希望对有志于在金融、经济、国际研究领域走下去的朋友们能有所启发。

        陈敬阳2016年毕业于约翰·霍普金斯大学保罗·尼采高级国际研究学院(SAIS),获得国际关系与经济专业硕士学位。她本科就读于北京大学,获得东南亚研究和经济学双学士学位。她目前在汇丰银行香港分部担任经济学家,主要负责东南亚国家的宏观经济研究。在过去,她曾在国际货币基金组织(IMF)、国际金融协会、亚洲基金会等机构实习及工作,年纪虽轻却有丰富的研究经验。

简单聊聊‘经济学家’这个听上去非常高大上的职位吧。”

        “ 我在汇丰银行的所在部门是Global banking and market – global research(全球研究中心)。在团队里,我个人主要研究的是泰国和新加坡的宏观经济状况。与普通研究机构和国际组织不同,在投行做研究工作是为客户服务的。打个比方,泰国每个季度的GDP、CPI数据发布以后,我都需要第一时间对它们进行分析,并将报告发给我的客户。在那以后,如果客户在自身业务中遇到问题或有需求,就会来找我咨询。另外,投行的研究工作也需要为前台的和sales and trading(销售交易部) 服务。我们最终的目的当然是为了让客户来我们银行做交易、购买债券,所以我们做研究的部门需要与前台紧密地联系与合作,共同达成这个目标。平时我们出差的时间较多,比如我会常去泰国和新加坡与那边的客户交流我的观点。

        投行的宏观经济部门相对特殊,因为我们的服务不会覆盖任何具体的债券或金融产品。如果要作类比的话,我们宏观这边的分析师每个人会负责一两个国家,那么做债券研究的部门他们每一个分析师会负责一两个公司或一两支股票的研究。在我看来,对资历较浅的年轻人来说,宏观的研究极具挑战性,因为客户认为你对这个国家的每一个大大小小的方面都了如指掌,而这需要长期的积累与观察。”

“确实,似乎我们平时在新闻上看到的经济学家年龄都不小啊(笑)。”

         “像国家的发展历程、或是经济状况这样大而广的话题确实很难把握,因而经济学家的工作对经验、阅历要求较高,对年轻人的挑战很大。我还比较年轻,一开始在与客户的沟通中会有很多问题。但我觉得在这条宏观经济研究的职业道路上,无论早晚总归是要开始的嘛,所以我感激这份工作一直激励着我去努力尝试许多原来我认为年轻人会难以胜任的事情。

        不过我想要强调的一点是,其实投行所做的宏观经济研究并不那么注重长期性与深入程度,因此我有许多博士毕业的朋友会觉得投行的研究做得太浅。读了博士的人大多还是更想去大学任教职,或去IMF(国际货币基金组织), World Bank(世界银行)做深入的经济研究。他们博士毕业、刚刚开始工作时也许已经三十岁左右了,可能这也是为什么大家平时能在各种新闻渠道上看到的经济学家年龄会偏大一些吧(笑)。”

“那在投行做研究和在你所说的国际组织里做研究有什么样的区别呢?”

        “在加入汇丰以前,我在IMF(国际货币基金组织)和其他的NGO(非政府组织)都工作过。在国际组织或智库的研究工作性质与我现在的工作截然不同。在那些组织做研究的目的主要是为了提升整个社会的福利,服务的对象也较为广泛,通常是希望能对某一个国家或者产业作出贡献。投行的服务对象当然就只是独立的客户。”

“你在IMF工作了一年多,那里应该是很多做经济学研究的人争先恐后想去的地方吧。你怎么看这个组织?”

        “IMF像一个大熔炉,很多世界上最杰出的经济学家都聚集在那里。我毕业后的第一份工作就是在IMF,虽然当时做的工作都相对比较基础,但我的收获也不小,主要还是了解了这个权威的金权研究机构的工作流程与工作方式。

        当时我所在的部门的研究领域和我自己的专长其实不太一样,部门的研究领域是中东和中亚地区,分给我的研究领域是阿富汗、伊朗和巴基斯坦。可以说阿富汗是一个比较“脆弱”的国家吧,你能够目睹一个国家刚刚建成的状态。伊朗的情况比较复杂,因为它封闭,并受到贸易制裁等等;但我觉得它有很强的可塑性,遗憾的是没有足够的数据和资料来支持我们的研究。巴基斯坦虽然存在政治动荡的问题,但是由于它市场大、人口多、资源丰富,依然能够吸引很多私人投资者的兴趣。我当时的工作就是日常地追踪这几个国家的数据库状态,偶尔会参与一些具体的项目。比如说,我当时有做过这几个中东国家财政政策和新兴市场收入差距的研究,也有观察发展中国家收入差距是怎么根据外来因素或国内政策改革而调整。另外,IMF支持员工经常出差,你也可想而知像巴基斯坦这样的国家,如果你不亲自去到那里看看的话,很难知道那里真正在发生什么。

        IMF的分工非常细致,你也可以从这点看出他们的工作目标是十分长远的,研究项目的时间跨度也很大。现在想起来我觉得这样的时间宽容度是非常“奢侈”的。对比投行的研究来看,我们基本上每周就要拿出一份研究报告,有时候一天就要拿出一份报告。如果遇到市场对某一个经济数据变动反响非常剧烈,也会有几小时就要出一份报告的时候。所以说,IMF是一个节奏非常慢,工作氛围宽松的地方,非常适合有志于深入研究经济学的人。因为对于研究的时间限制宽松,所以你能够把一个问题琢磨透,并细致地考虑到它的方方面面。”

“你觉得IMF报告的最大价值是什么?”

         “IMF出的研究报告是面对公众的,负责每一个国家研究的团队与该国家的政府、央行等都有非常紧密的联系,因此IMF能够拿到很多没有对外公布过的数据。因为如此,IMF出的报告价值非常高,即使在投行,我也会经常去翻阅他们出的报告。IMF对于经济发展整体的观点是积极的,当然你可能会有与他们不同的看法,但是他们的数据和分析依然很有参考价值。”

“你在IMF研究中东国家,专长领域又是东南亚经济。你觉得做经济学研究时,应该怎么去考量一个国家宗教、政治、文化的因素?“

        “做发展中国家的研究时,尤其需要考虑很多宗教、政治、文化的因素。如果你是去做发达国家比如说德国、英国的研究,那么就很少需要去过多地考虑政治的影响,因为它通常不是一个决定性的因素。不过,现在Trump这样的领导者不按套路出牌,让我们得开始注重经济发展中的政治因素,这也体现了近年来发达国家开始向大政府主义方向发展的趋势。但新兴市场里边的情况一直都是如此,从来都很难去撇清政治因素来考虑投资。政治因素通常是投资者首要考虑的,因为他们要考虑把钱投进一个国家会不会受到资金管控,钱出不出得来等问题。因此,很多客户会来咨询我们政治方面的问题,比方说对一个国家的政权演变做预测和评估。即使你的最终观点不一定正确,因为没有人能够准确地预测一个国家政变、改革等巨大的变动,重要的是你能够用你手中掌握的有限信息去做有理有据的推断。”

“确实,即使是在经济学这一个领域里考虑职业方向选择的时候,个人具体的技能所在以及待遇等方面都很关键吧?”

        “投行给的工资会比智库和国际组织高一些(笑),但是在这里需要承受的压力与紧迫感更强,工作时间更长,算下来你的时薪还是差不多的。当然IMF这样的机构给的待遇也不会低,他们会竭尽全力给经济学家们一个舒服的工作环境和充足的时间来深入琢磨经济问题。

         至于个人具体的技能所在,经济学家这个工作对于学术能力的要求肯定是高的,但我们也确实不需要像攻读经济学博士一样去做极其深入的经济学研究。尽管如此,数据分析、经济理论的基础肯定还是要比较扎实。与此同时,与人打交道的能力也非常重要。也许你能够做出很好的研究成果,但是能否把你的观点清晰、简明地传达给客户才是决定你工作是否成功的最终因素。

          和其他的投行相比,汇丰在香港算是本地的企业,业务量非常大,所以员工收入可观。但我想格外提一下近年来可以明显看到的一个趋势:欧资、美资投行在亚太地区的业务拓展没有2008年经济危机以前那么快了。并且,在中国的金融改革过后,中资券商成长越来越快,所以美资、欧资银行会明显受到挤压。做宏观经济研究工作的话还会好一些,但如果做sales and trading就会明显感受到各方面的压力,包括发展迅速的金融科技产业、中资券商等等。整体来说,很多传统金融行业的从业者都会思考自己未来的出路,有的想转到金融科技行业,有的想转到科技行业。大家做职业规划时结合行业发展的趋势,各自有各自的考虑吧。”

香港问题专家孔诰烽 (Ho-Fung Hung) 教授下篇:假如我是一个想在中国革命的欧洲人

作者:王艺霖
采访于2016年
本文原发表于BlueNetChina微信公众号

今天这个话题,讲的是一个著名社会学教授的研究。他在紫禁城里翻阅了很多很多清朝皇帝和地方官的往来书信,看到其中有很多讨论地方起义的内容。他随即发现,中国人民的起义和欧洲人民的革命虽然好像是在同一个时期干一样的事情,但实质上这些人完全在想不一样的事情……

        采访人物:孔诰烽(Ho-Fung Hung),约翰霍普金斯大学社会学系教授,著名社会学者。他研究的问题主要集中于中国的政治经济学,例如中国从帝国到民族国家的转变、儒家思想对中国国家形成以及民间起义、革命的影响和塑造、中国经济的崛起以及近年来的停滞对全球资本主义体系的冲击与改变等。

当欧洲人在革命的时候,他们觉得自己在干什么?

        在欧洲人的思想里,他们是把“公民社会”和“国家”这两个概念分得很开的。人民革命的目标是保护公民社会的主权,让它不被统治者们侵犯。所以在一个国家统治者想要中央集权的时候,就很容易引起革命。因为人民会觉得他们在入侵公民社会。

当中国人在革命的时候,他们觉得自己在干什么?

        在中国,人们其实并没有把“公民社会”和“国家”区分开来的意识。实际上,在中国占主流的政治思想一直是从儒家思想里继承下来的“家族观念”。在儒家的政见里,一切政治上的关系都是家庭关系的延伸。所以在这样的思想里,最高统治者、官员和人民就像一个家庭一样:最高统治者就是家里的爷爷奶奶,官员们是家里的大人,人民就是家里的孩子。我在很多皇帝和地方官的往来书信里都看到了这样的比喻。

        当中国人民对政府不满的时候,他们会向地方政府“扔石头”,然后跑到京城去求统治者们帮他们。在统治者眼里,这就像家里的小孩和父母闹别扭来找爷爷奶奶哭诉。那么这个时候统治者要做的就是看是家里的大人占理,还是孩子占理,然后决定要帮哪边。

        总体来说,中国的人民从古至今对最高统治者都抱有很大的希望和信任,这是一种很大程度上基于感性而非理性的情感吧,是世世代代传下来的 。

有没有什么我们熟知的例子?

        最熟知的例子大概就是“上访”。中国人民可以通过“来信来访”的形式向政府反映民意、冤情。回到我们的比喻里,就是孩子们可以向家里的老人哭诉对爸妈的不满。这虽然不是起义,但其中体现的思想意识确是中国从古至今的起义里一直都有并反复出现的。

        近代历史里,文化大革命也是个典型的例子。毛主席就是“中国大家庭”里的爷爷,党内的其他高官就是家里的大人,人民就是家里的孩子。当时,家里的爷爷认为大人们腐败,所以煽动了孩子们去反抗。

那依然有那么多的起义和革命是人民推翻了中央政府,这又该怎么解释呢?

我们会发现,虽然伴随着新朝代的出现,好像人民们成功地抛弃了之前的那种思想意识,但其实很快的这些新的统治者又会运用同样的策略去管理国家,也就是把自己塑造成大家长的这个方法。好比清政府被推翻了以后,还是出现了北京复辟的政变,包括蒋介石后来为了巩固自己的地位也尝试着把自己刻画成一个慈爱的祖父的形象。然后毛泽东在文革中也采用了相同的策略。

所以总体来讲,中国的统治从古至今一直都延续着儒家的“家庭观念”,统治者依靠这样的策略巩固和稳定自己的政权,人民在面对不公的待遇时把自己的希望寄托于他们所信任的中央政府。